Water to
Wine
:
John 2:1-11
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After the testimony of John, and the conversations with his disciples, Jesus is invited to the
celebration of a marriage in Cana of Galilee.

The attendance of Jesus at this wedding, shows Jesus’ approval of marriage. It is more than a
piece of paper. It is the union before man and God of love, fidelity, and commitment between a
man and a woman.

It is necessary in our day and time to note that marriage in Jesus’ time was limited
to a man and a woman.

Other sexual actions were known at this time,
but none of them were considered marriage.


Paul, later, uses marriage to illustrate the relationship of Jesus to the church.

(Ephesians 5:25-33) Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave
himself for it; That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word, That he
might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but
that it should be holy and without blemish. So ought men to love their wives as their own bodies.
He that loveth his wife loveth himself. For no man ever yet hated his own flesh; but nourisheth and
cherisheth it, even as the Lord the church: For we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of
his bones. For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall be joined unto his
wife, and they two shall be one flesh. This is a great mystery: but I speak concerning Christ and
the church. Nevertheless let every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; and
the wife see that she reverence her husband.  (KJV)

Jesus’ mother was at the feast, and approaches Jesus about the lack of wine.

Wine can be either alcoholic or non-alcoholic. Any and all juice pressed from the grape is wine.
“New wine” is fresh pressed grape juice.

GLE'UKOS, sweet-wine.
It occurs once: Acts 2. 13,
the disciples charged
with being 'full of it.'
OlNOS, wine
= the juice of the grape.
It occurs thirty-two times.


Jesus rebukes His mother here. It is not her place to call for the miraculous. He and the Father
will determine whether a miracle needs to be done. The time of incomparable evidence being
manifest had not yet come. That hour would come in His death and resurrection.

Mine hour is not yet come. Our Lord's answer indicates that Mary's request had in it more
than a desire for the gift of wine. What she principally wanted was to have Jesus manifest
himself as Messiah. Now, Jesus gave many secondary, but only one supreme, manifestation
of his glory or Messiahship. His miracles were secondary manifestations, but his Passion
was the supreme manifestation (Joh 8:28; 2:18,19; Mt 12:38-40). Jesus called this supreme
sign his "hour" (Joh 12:23; 17:1; Mt 26:45; Lu 22:53; see also Joh 7:30; 8:20). His mother
sought for a supreme sign, but at that time only a secondary sign could be fittingly given. The
triumph at Pentecost was not to be achieved at Cana.

        The Fourfold Gospel p. 116


Jesus’ mother after the rebuke, told the servants to do whatever Jesus told them to

There were six waterpots of stone at the wedding. The Jews held the tradition of washing their
hands both before and after eating. A wedding, as in our own day, included a banquet.
(Matthew 15:2) Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? for they wash not their
hands when they eat bread.  (KJV)

(Mark 7:1-5) Then came together unto him the Pharisees, and certain of the scribes, which came
from Jerusalem. And when they saw some of his disciples eat bread with defiled, that is to say,
with unwashen, hands, they found fault. {defiled: or, common} For the Pharisees, and all the Jews,
except they wash their hands oft, eat not, holding the tradition of the elders. {oft: or, diligently: in
the original, with the fist: Theophylact, up to the elbow} And when they come from the market,
except they wash, they eat not. And many other things there be, which they have received to hold,
as the washing of cups, and pots, brasen vessels, and of tables. {pots: sextarius is about a pint
and an half} {tables: or, beds} Then the Pharisees and scribes asked him, Why walk not thy
disciples according to the tradition of the elders, but eat bread with unwashen hands?  (KJV)
The size of the waterpots has been estimated as low as thirteen gallons and as high as twenty-
seven.

…the six waterpots held each two or three firkins apiece--
between eighteen and twenty-seven gallons, a firkin being nine gallons…
– The Fourfold Gospel


Jesus told the servants to fill the waterpots with water, and take some of the contents to the head
of the feast.

When the head of the wedding feast tasted the contents of the waterpots, he was surprised that the
best wine was kept till the last, as the custom was to bring out the best first.

He does not say when men get drunk, but when men have well drunk, or when they have
consumed a lot.

The ruler of the feast did not know the wine had been made from water by Jesus; but, the
servants knew.

Early writers make reference to this miracle as representing creation. As God makes the rain
(water) to fall and it becomes the juice in the grape, so Jesus took water and made it into the juice
of the grape. It showed His power and majesty in being able to do that which God did in nature. It
pairs with the words of John in the beginning of the first chapter, that Jesus was present and active
in the creation.

This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth his glory; and his
disciples believed on him.  (KJV)
(John 2:1-11) And the third day
there was a marriage in Cana of
Galilee; and the mother of Jesus
was there: And both Jesus was
called, and his disciples, to the
marriage. And when they
wanted wine, the mother of
Jesus saith unto him, They have
no wine.

Jesus saith unto her, Woman,
what have I to do with thee?
mine hour is not yet come.

His mother saith unto the
servants, Whatsoever he saith
unto you, do it.

And there were set there six
waterpots of stone, after the
manner of the purifying of the
Jews, containing two or three
firkins apiece.
Jesus saith unto them, Fill the waterpots with water.And they filled them up to the brim.

And he saith unto them, Draw out now, and bear unto the governor of the feast.


And they bare it.  When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and
knew not whence it was: (but the servants which drew the water knew;) the governor of the
feast called the bridegroom, And saith unto him, Every man at the beginning doth set forth
good wine; and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse: but thou hast kept the
good wine until now.


This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth his glory; and
his disciples believed on him.  (KJV)