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John 19.16-30
John 19:16-30  Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took
Jesus, and led him away.

(17)  And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is
called in the Hebrew Golgotha:  (18)  Where they crucified him, and two other with him,
on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.  (19)  And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the
cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS. (20)  
This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to
the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin.  

(21)  Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but
that he said, I am King of the Jews.

(22)  Pilate answered, What I have written I have written.  

(23)  Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four
parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from
the top throughout.  (24)  They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but
cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They
parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots. These things
therefore the soldiers did.  

(25)  Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the
wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.  (26)  When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and
the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy
son!  (27)  Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother! And from that hour that
disciple took her unto his own home.  

(28)  After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture
might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.  

(29)  Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a sponge with vinegar, and
put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth.  

(30)  When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed
his head, and gave up the ghost.

Pilate had scourged Jesus in preparation for Him being crucified. The scourging tore the muscles making it difficult
to pull and push up to breathe. For death by crucifixion was by suffocation. It usually took about three days.
Painfully pulling upon the nails in the hands, and painfully pushing against the nails in the feet.  The Romans were
not the first people to use crucifixion; but they perfected the pain and the torment associated with being nailed to a


Jesus carried the crossbeam for His cross as far as He could. The crossbeam was around six feet and one hundred
pounds or more. To carry that with a back torn bare by scourging was more than He could endure.

The place of the skull, Golgatha (once referred to as Calvary), was close to the city. Whether it named this because
from a distance it looked like a skull, or whether it was because of the skulls which had fallen in the area from the
rotting corpses of others who had been crucified – we do not know. Normally, the corpses were left on the cross
until they rotted off.

Jesus was placed on a cross between two thieves. Fastened to the cross with nails through His hands and His feet.


Above Jesus, on the cross, was a sign that read JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS. It was written in
Hebrew – the official language of the religion of the Jews. It was written in Greek – the language of commerce for
the Mediterranean world. It was written in Latin – the official langue of the political power of Rome. By placing it in
these three languages, anyone who would view it could read it. Every Jew knew Hebrew. Every merchant (and most
people, regardless of nationality) knew Greek. Every Roman citizen knew Latin.

The chief priests objected to what was written. They did not wish Jesus to be called THE KING OF THE JEWS, but to
say He claimed to be THE KING OF THE JEWS. But Pilate would not budge.

When crucified, the victim would be stripped of their clothing. Woolen undergarments, leather girdles or belts, tunics, sandals and a
mantle (or cloak, coat) would generally be worn by the Jews. Jesus’ clothing was divided into four parts, and the four soldiers which
crucified Him, each took their part. This left His outer garment – His coat or cloak. It was the same type of garment worn and required
of the high priest – one piece, without seam. They decided not to rip it into parts. Rather they gambled (cast lots – threw dice like items)
to determine who would get it. This was a fulfillment of prophecy.

It may be viewed symbolically.—1. “For our sakes He became poor.” He was made naked that we might be clothed (Rev_3:18).
The seamless garment—like the high-priestly robe (Rev_1:13)—He allowed to be taken off, that we might be clothed in garments
made white in His precious blood (Rev_7:14). It was symbolical of His perfect obedience (Rom_5:18, etc.). 2. And on His cross,
through His sufferings and death, another garment has been woven for His believing people. His suffering unto death satisfied and
vindicated the broken law.
        Preacher’s Homilectic Commentary


Jesus while He was hanging on the cross, in pain from grasping for breath, appointed one of His disciples to take care of His mother.
It is commonly believed and held that John was that disciple “whom He loved.” John, perhaps Jesus’ cousin, took the words of Jesus
to heart, and took His mother into his home. Several women were there as He hung on the cross – His mother, His aunt, and Mary


Jesus knew that the time had come for the end. There was one more scripture to be fulfilled, Psalm 69.21.

There was some sort of container there which had a Roman vinegar medicinal wine. It was given to those crucified to help alleviate the
pain, and extend the time period they would have to spend on the cross. When Jesus cried out, I thirst, they took a sponge dipped in
the wine, put it upon hyssop, and put it in His mouth.

It is worth noting that hyssop was what the Jews were to use to put the blood on the door lintel of the original Passover. Now, hyssop is
used with our Passover Lamb.


Having fulfilled everything in scripture in regards to the crucifixion, Jesus realizes “IT IS FINISHED.” And He gives up the ghost, He
surrenders His Spirit, or life force.

In one way, the Romans did not kill Jesus, and the Jews did not murder Him – He willingly died for the sins of the world. He died for
you and me. He died that our sins might be set free. He died that we might receive grace – that we might receive the forgiveness of
sins – that we might become the sons of God – that we might have eternal life.