Biblical Commentary        
The Epistle of the Apostle
Paul to the Romans (II)
        Salutation (1:1-15)
        The power of the gospel (1:16,17)
        All have sinned
        The sins of the Gentiles (1:18-32)
        God’s equality (2:1-16)
        The sins of the Jews (2:17-29)
        Justification
        The advantage of the Jew (3:1-18)
        Righteousness without the Law (3:19-31)
        Abraham’s righteousness (4:1-25)
        Righteousness through our Lord Jesus Christ (5:1-21)
        Dead to sin in Jesus (6:1-23)
        Dead to the Law in Jesus (7:1-25)
        The law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus (8:1-29)
        The Plan of God
        Israel’s rebellion lead to Gentiles acceptance (9:1-33)
        Righteousness on God’s terms (10:1-21)
        All men (including Israel) will be saved in the same manner (11:1-36)
        Live in righteousness
        Toward God (12:1-2)
        Toward brethren (12:3-13)
        Toward enemies (12:14-21)
        Toward government (13:1-7)
        Toward neighbors (13:8-10)
        In matters of conscience (14:1-15:12)
        Closing statements
        Purpose (15:14-21)
        Plans (15:22-33)
        Greetings (16:1-24)
        Benediction (16:25-27)

-- Or --

For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ:for it is the power of God unto salvation for
every one that believeth;...;
~ Romans 1:16

        Introduction(1:1-17)
        The Need of Divine Righteousness(1:18-3:31)
        The Sin of the Gentiles (1:18-32)
        The Sin of the Critic (2:1-16)
        The Sin of the Jews (2:17-3:8)
        The Sin of All (3:9-20)
        The Manifestation of Divine Righteousness (4:1-8:39)
        The Promise as the Basis of Righteousness (4:1-25)
        The Attainment of Righteousness (5:1-21)
        What Righteousness Means (6:1-8:39)
        The Relation of Righteousness to the Jew(9:1-11:36)
        The Election of Israel (9:1-33)
        The Salvation of Israel (10:1-21)
        The Failure of Israel (11:1-36)
        Righteousness in Obedience(12:1-15:13)
        A Living Sacrifice (12:1-8)
        Personal Relationships (12:9-21)
        Political Relationships (13:1-7)
        Public Relationships (13:8-14)
        Fraternal Relationships (14:1-15:13)
        Conclusion(15:14-16:27)

Romans has been called “The Gospel Addressed to the Reason.” As Psalms is addressed
to the heart because it appeals to the emotions, so Romans is addressed to the mind
because it appeals to the rational.

All men are sinners. It matters not whether they are Jew or Gentile, circumcised or
uncircumcised. Even the critic who addresses the sin of the Gentiles is guilty of sin.
Salvation was promised to Abraham before circumcision. The promise was salvation
through faith, not circumcision. Abraham’s faith (which caused him to be obedient) is what
made him righteous.  It is our faith in Jesus (which causes us to be obedient – the likeness
of His death, burial and resurrection in immersion – baptism—as well as living in
obedience) that grants righteousness and salvation.

Israel had been granted a special position as the people of God, but their sin and rejection
of God’s messengers and Son, meant they were rejected as the people of God. That opened
salvation to the Gentiles. However, Israel was not irrevocably rejected; they would be
accepted in the same way that the Gentiles were accepted – through an obedient faith in
Jesus. The Gentiles had no room to boast over the Jews, just as the Jews had no reason to
boast over the Gentiles.

The righteousness in Christ called for believers to live in righteousness. The sacrifice they
are to offer to God is not the burnt offerings of the altar and the Law, but the obedience of a
contrite heart in the way they lived. That meant in their personal relationships, their political
relationships, their  public relationships, and their fraternal relationships – in every
relationship they had in life – they were to conduct themselves as Christians.

Romans, as much as any other book of the New Testament, teaches that Christianity is not
merely something to be believed – it is something to be lived. Without faith it is nothing.
Without works it is empty. It must be faith in action.
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